Fire hazard analysis and preventive measures of th

2022-09-19
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Fire hazard analysis and preventive measures of atmospheric and vacuum distillation unit

atmospheric and vacuum distillation is the first process that is essential for petrochemical enterprises at present, and has great potential fire and explosion hazards. According to the atmospheric and vacuum distillation process and its equipment, this paper analyzes the dangerous factors and conditions existing in the production process, and summarizes the preventive measures and technologies of fire and explosion

atmospheric and vacuum distillation is the first necessary process in petrochemical enterprises at present. Various fuels, lubricating oil fractions and cracking raw materials can be directly obtained from crude oil through atmospheric and vacuum distillation. However, the fire and explosion in the distillation process are dangerous and harmful. Once a fire occurs, the fire will expand rapidly, which makes it difficult to put out the fire and cause serious losses. Fire safety must be emphasized in production

1 brief process flow

petroleum is a complex mixture of multiple components. According to the difference of boiling points of components, its components can be separated by distillation to obtain products. This production process can be divided into three parts: electric desalting primary distillation, atmospheric distillation and vacuum distillation. The process flow is shown in Figure 1. The crude oil is heated to 90 ~ 120 ℃ and enters the electric desalting dehydrator. Under the action of high-voltage electric field, the water and salt suspended in the crude oil are separated from the crude oil and removed; Further heat exchange to 220 ~ 250 ℃ and enter the primary distillation tower to separate fractions less than 130 ℃; The topping crude oil at the bottom of the primary distillation tower is often heated to 360 ~ 370 ℃ in the pressure heating furnace and enters the atmospheric fractionator for distillation. The distillate oil on each side enters the stripper for stripping with superheated water steam to ensure the quality of the side distillate oil; The heavy oil at the bottom of the atmospheric tower is heated to 410 ℃ by the vacuum heating furnace and enters the vacuum tower for vacuum distillation by pressing the "input i/4" key. The product is used as cracking raw material and fuel, etc

Figure 1 distillation process flow chart

2 fire and explosion risk analysis of atmospheric and vacuum distillation unit

2.1 raw materials and products have fire and explosion risk

the use of thermoplastic polymers in raw materials in the process of petroleum refining and distillation eliminates the need for producers to adopt thermal insulation and protective urethanes (TPU), intermediates and products required by traditional materials. Most of them are fire dangerous goods, among which crude oil and light oil products are flammable, explosive and easy to evaporate, There is combustible and explosive gas, which will explode in case of fire source

2.2 electric desalting and dehydration is dangerous

only vehicles with magnesium components can show the effect of energy saving. In the process of electric desalting and dehydration, there is high-temperature hot oil, and electrical devices with high-voltage (15kV ~ 35kV) electric fields are used. If the desalting and dehydration tank is not full of crude oil or there is air, start the high-voltage power supply; Or insulation breakdown caused by poor insulation of high-voltage electrical appliances or electric field strength exceeding 2kv/cm will lead to explosion and fire

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