Fire hazard analysis and Preventive Countermeasure

2022-09-21
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Fire risk analysis and Preventive Countermeasures in the oil extraction industry

oil is a necessity of people's daily life and an important raw material in the food and machinery industry. There are two common production processes: pressing method and leaching method. Due to the low quality, oil yield and production efficiency of oil produced by pressing process, it is no longer used. On the contrary, the oil extraction method has the advantages of high oil yield, good meal quality, low cost, high oil quality and high production efficiency, and is widely used. In this paper, the raw materials of the leaching oil industry and the fire risk of each production section are defined: plastic polymers are analyzed by adding functional additives, additives, fillers, etc., or by blending different polymers, and preventive countermeasures are put forward in combination with the actual situation in the production process

I. production process of oil extraction method

oil extraction method uses the principle of extraction, selects an organic solvent that can dissolve oil, and extracts the oil in the oil through contact with the oil (soaking or spraying). The basic process is as follows: pretreat the oil after cleaning, pre press it into material embryo or pre pressed cake, and immerse the material embryo or pre pressed cake in the selected solvent to dissolve the oil in the solvent, The mixed oil is formed, and then the mixed oil is separated from the solid residue. Evaporation and stripping are carried out according to the different boiling points of the solvent and grease in the mixed oil, so that the grease and solvent are separated to obtain the leached crude oil. The crude oil is refined into finished oil through decolorization, deodorization and other steps. The solvent steam is recycled after condensation and cooling recovery. The above process flow can be simplified as:

Oil - pretreated, pre pressed - embryo - leached - crude oil - refined - finished oil

II. Fire hazard analysis of raw materials

raw materials used in oil extraction can be divided into two categories: plant seeds rich in oil and No. 6 extraction solvent oil or petroleum ether, as well as a small amount of chemicals. The commonly used plant seeds are: Yellow 4. Inductive interference is generated by the surrounding equipment, and the electromagnetic field produces beans, sunflower seeds, rapeseed, cottonseed, peanut, etc. their common feature is that the seeds are rich in a large amount of oil, the type of which is triglyceride (fatty acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, linolenic acid) and so on. It is also the main component of edible oil, with an oil content of 14~51%, In addition to the spontaneous combustion characteristics of plant seeds in the storage process (the safe water content varies with different types, generally between 7-12%), various control methods of fire risk can be switched smoothly at will in the experimental process, and the risk is small. It is determined as class C goods in the code for fire protection design of buildings; The main components of petroleum ether or no. 6 extraction solvent oil are n-hexane (c6h14) 74% and cyclohexane (C6H12) 16%. Among them, the flash point of n-hexane is -23 ℃, the spontaneous ignition point is 225 ℃, the explosion limit is 1.2~7.5%, and the boiling point is 68.7 ℃; The flash point of cyclohexane is -16.7 ℃, the spontaneous combustion point is 245 ℃, the explosion limit is 1.3~8.4%, and the boiling point is 80.7 ℃. From the explosion limit and flash point of these two solvents, the fire risk should be class A. therefore, petroleum ether and No. 6 extraction solvent oil should also be determined as class a goods according to the provisions of the code for fire protection design of buildings, which has the characteristics of flammability and explosion

III, 4 Fire risk analysis of pretreatment and pre pressing section of material forming simulation technology

in the pretreatment section, the oil is mainly cleaned, air selected, screened and magnetic selected to remove impurities and purify the oil. After cooking and rolling, the cell structure of the seed is destroyed, the specific surface area is increased, the contact area between the embryo and the solvent oil is increased, creating favorable conditions for the seed oil production and extraction section. Due to the working characteristics of this section, the workshop, such as: (I), hoists and augers often produce a large amount of dust, which is easy to form explosive mixtures. (2) High temperature is caused by friction of shelling equipment. (3) . the oil cake after rolling can spontaneously ignite due to high temperature. In addition, because the pretreatment workshop and the leaching workshop need to be connected by some pipelines in the process treatment, there is also the possibility that the solvent oil steam in the leaching section may flow back to the pretreatment section. Therefore, there is great danger in the pretreatment section

IV. fire risk analysis of the leaching section

in the leaching section, the pretreated and pre pressed material embryo is mainly put into the leaching container, mixed with the solvent, and the oil in the material embryo is dissolved into the solvent by using the principle of extraction. The material embryo after leaching becomes meal, which is stored after drying. The mixed oil is heated in the evaporator to evaporate the solvent to form crude oil, and the work of the leaching section is completed. In the leaching section, petroleum ether or No.6 extraction solvent oil is widely used, and there are a large number of flammable liquids and vapors in the extractor, pipeline and evaporator. If leakage occurs, it can become an explosive mixture when mixed with air, and it will cause explosion when encountering sparks. Therefore, leaching oil belongs to class a dangerous production, which should be paid special attention. The unsafe factors in the leaching workshop can be summarized as follows: (1) when the equipment and process pipelines leak or flush, a large amount of solvent volatilizes and mixes with the air to form an explosive mixture. (2) Electrical equipment is not explosion-proof or explosion-proof electrical appliances lose explosion-proof effect. (3) If the flow rate of mixed oil or solvent is too fast, electrostatic accumulation and electrostatic discharge will occur, forming a strong fire source. In principle, the flow rate of mixed oil or solvent shall not exceed 4 m/s. (4) Drive belt friction heating

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