Analysis on the capability maturity of ERP impleme

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The capability maturity analysis of ERP implementation in Chinese enterprises

1 ERP system and ERP implementation

Gartner Group, an internationally renowned management software evaluation organization, defined ERP system in the early 1990s, pointed out that ERP system is an information system for planning and financial accounting of enterprise wide resources according to orders, and emphasized that ERP system is different from traditional MRPII system. And advanced information technology is adopted. This is because the ERP system spans the range of manufacturing resources such as materials, processing places, equipment and labor, and covers the resources of suppliers, customers, manufacturing resources between multiple factories of enterprises, and the protection of hosts in multiple distribution places. Here are the management resources that are not at the introduction point, such as sales resources, enterprise human resources, management accounting resources, and equipment pre maintenance resources. In addition, ERP system supports discrete, process and other mixed manufacturing environments, and its application scope has spread from manufacturing to retail, service, banking, telecommunications, government agencies, schools and other business departments. It effectively integrates enterprise resources by integrating database technology, graphical user interface, fourth generation query language, client server structure, computer-aided development tools, portable open systems and so on. Therefore, to put it simply, ERP system is an integrated system of enterprise resources and computer resources. The implementation of ERP system by enterprises is a management innovation project and a process of conflict, intersection and aggregation between Chinese and foreign management modes

because ERP system involves enterprise resources and computers, a reasonable division of labor must be carried out in ERP application and computers. During the implementation of ERP, the implementation process of computer software and the management of the implementation process should be monitored at two levels. This requires enterprises not only to realize the needs and plans of the software implementation itself, but also to monitor the implementation of its own management changes. Chinese enterprises are unfamiliar with ERP itself and lack experience in the change of management mode in the process of ERP implementation, so it is difficult to check the implementation quality. This is mainly because ERP system has a large collection of new nouns and foreign words. Set a psychological threshold for the vast number of enterprise managers. Psychological fear makes many managers regard ERP as very mysterious. Through nearly three years of investigation and research, this paper decides to introduce the capability maturity model of ERP implementation to subdivide the predictability and plannability of ERP implementation, break the mystery of ERP implementation, strengthen the cooperation with ERP software companies and management consulting companies, and make enterprises complete the project on schedule like implementing general management projects

2 Capability Maturity Model of ERP implementation

in the past, there was an internationally accepted ABCD rating for the implementation effect of MRPII system, while the summary of ERP implementation abroad since 1997 is mainly the analysis of the key factor method of success. It summarizes the key factors such as first-hand project, training and retraining, learning from failure, but the dynamic analysis of these factors in the implementation process is not detailed. In the past two years, some scholars have introduced change management in the field of sociology to study the impact of corporate culture and social culture on the implementation of ERP, while the specific implementation details of the software life cycle are insufficient. Because ERP system first is the management idea, then designs the management idea into software, implements the software into the enterprise is a high-tech product industry, and finally integrates the refined management idea and management method into the business process of the enterprise to drive the improvement of the enterprise management level. Therefore, the ERP software implementation process involves the respective management modes of the two partners of the software company and the enterprise, which is not the unilateral work of the enterprise. This process is equivalent to a tailor's process of making clothes according to customers' needs and then buying newspapers, which requires the cooperation between customers and tailors. Due to the different tastes of consumers, tailors have different production modes, such as small workshops, single piece and small batch, mass flow, mass customization, etc., so different consumers will have their own advantages for different tailors' skills and brands. That is to say, the actual enterprise management level of Chinese enterprises has led to different enterprise needs for ERP implementation, and the degree of implementation is also different in market share, We must refine these implementation levels and provide guidance for ERP implementation for large, medium and small enterprises. Through the reference of the maturity model of software production capacity and the comparison of the common characteristics of the production modes of manufacturing industry and software industry, this paper introduces the capability maturity model of ERP implementation to evaluate the implementation capability of enterprises and ERP software providers for ERP projects. According to the key activity areas of software implementation, the implementation capability levels are divided into original level, repeatable level, defined level, manageable level and optimization level

erp implementation capability has a ladder like improvement path from low to high. The maturity of evaluation capability can be measured from two aspects: key activity areas and their activity capabilities. The activity areas include ERP Selection, ERP implementation cycle, the support of ERP software companies and management consulting companies, ERP project management, and ERP project organization. Each activity area also includes the corresponding specific activities, basic characteristics and results of the activities. Moreover, the activities have plans and results, and deviations need to be noted

the activity ability to evaluate the capability maturity is divided according to whether the activity meets the specified requirements. If the activity is incomplete, the capability maturity of the activity is low, otherwise it is high. Therefore, the activity capability maturity can be divided into four levels according to the percentage system. The first level is not achieved, which is 0 to 15 points, some achieve 16 to 50 points, most achieve 51 to 85 points, and all achieve 86 to 100 points. According to the importance of each activity field and its activities, you can also set weights, and finally calculate the total score. Based on the cumulative scores of the key activities in the above five areas, the total score of the capability maturity of the entire ERP project is evaluated. In this way, the capability maturity of ERP implementation can generally be divided into five levels, including original level, repeatable level, defined level, management level and optimization level. The higher the maturity of the actual ability, the better the control of the project process, and the more consistent the plan with the actual situation

3 initial level of ERP implementation

the initial level of ERP implementation defines the input, output and implementation scope of ERP system. That is, knowing the modules of ERP system to buy, which modules to implement, how to implement, and what is in the ERP module. I don't know. The implementation process is a black box. The reason is "this is not buying cabbage. You can try it. ERP software can't see what's in it. How can you try it?". Therefore, the initial ERP implementation project is in a disorderly process without detailed definition. The implementation progress, budget, ERP function and ERP implementation quality of the system are unpredictable. When encountering problems, they often give up the original plan and fall into the trap of programming and secondary development

first of all, although initial level enterprises have also established project teams, they do not understand ERP system when selecting ERP. I don't know how to investigate software vendors and software, and the demand for ERP is not clear. Generally speaking, I don't know what ERP can do for enterprises, so I bought ERP system. Therefore, the introduction of ERP system was only recognized by a few managers of the enterprise, and the enterprise didn't mobilize managers to digest the whole system, and the enterprise didn't prepare enough implementation personnel and follow-up funds

in addition, the initial level enterprises also have problems with ERP software companies, mainly due to the poor quality of ERP software products and procedural defects. The products of some small ERP software companies are immature and belong to the stage of small-scale trial production, so it is difficult to control the activities of the whole life cycle of ERP software implementation, and ERP software vendors do not have an internal management mechanism to manage, monitor and assess the quality of the whole project. Therefore, when ERP projects encounter resistance and implementation difficulties, ERP companies often give full play to the abilities of implementers and programmers for secondary development. The whole project is trapped in the manual management mode of the enterprise. Neglecting the improvement of ERP system on enterprise management mode, falling into system programming and testing, abandoning the original ERP system functions, and being sloppy are the signs that the initial ERP project is out of control

in addition, the initial level enterprises also have problems in the project organization. The enterprises do not have a stable ERP implementation environment and maintenance environment. The maturity of the whole project depends on the personal ability of a few people. If the main force of implementation cannot complete the task on schedule, the enterprise leaders will change, making the subjectivity and personal heroism of the project strong. In addition, the success of the ERP project at the initial level also depends to a large extent on the support of the software company and the development experience of the implementation experts. If the competent implementation personnel cannot be retained, or there are personnel changes in the ERP software company, the project will enter a state of near paralysis

4 repeatable level of ERP implementation

the repeatable level of ERP implementation is mainly based on the experience of previous management projects to plan and manage new ERP projects. Project members summarized the experience of the initial level and refined the quality assurance content of the process control of past projects. Repeatable level has accumulated two aspects of experience, that is, enterprises have experience in implementing enterprise management software, and have also absorbed the past experience and lessons, and ERP software companies have also successfully implemented several ERP projects. Enterprises and ERP software companies have institutionalized, disciplined and repeatable the whole ERP implementation process. This is mainly reflected in the fact that the project manager can be responsible for the cost, schedule and ERP functions, and can take corrective measures when problems occur, so that the project can reach the level of the original commitment. However, there are also problems at the repeatable level, mainly due to the ability maturity of the five key activity areas of "ERP model selection, ERP implementation cycle, the support of ERP software companies and management consulting companies, ERP project management, and ERP project organization". The first two items are higher than the initial level, and the last three items are still low

first of all, repeatable enterprises are still difficult to ask consulting companies for project consultation due to capital constraints, and ERP software companies are also difficult to establish partnerships with consulting companies due to their small size. Therefore, the implementation strategy of the entire ERP project and the specific measures formulated for the implementation strategy are mainly aimed at the ERP software itself, and less involves the comparative analysis of the old and new business processes of the enterprise, The whole project is dominated by personnel from the computer department, which makes it difficult to fully spread out in key management fields such as manufacturing, finance and sales. Either finance, manufacturing or sales have been implemented, and the integrated management integration has not been achieved

in addition, because the repeatable ERP implementation is still a "caseby case" single piece small batch production, software implementation only has quality assurance for the main activities in the ERP implementation life cycle, but the management of the entire ERP project has not formed a common plan between enterprises and software vendors. There is no stable total quality management environment for the internal management of ERP software company. In other words, ERP software company has not formed a set of standard software implementation process and management process to restrict all implementation employees and their agents. If the project manager is not effective, or there are too many projects, the implementation objectives of the ERP project and the parts of the detailed project plan that need to be tailored still face the risk of overdue. Therefore, although the ERP project organization has been established and the roles and responsibilities of specific project team personnel have been specified, the project is still a mere formality

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